Journal of Health and Medical Sciences
Volumen 5, Fascículo 3, 2019

<div>
<div class=»line»><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;journal-meta&gt;</span></div>
<div class=»collapsible-content»>
<div class=»line»><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;journal-id&gt;</span><span class=»text»>0719-949X</span><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;/journal-id&gt;</span></div>
<div id=»collapsible3″ class=»collapsible»>
<div class=»expanded»>
<div class=»line»><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;journal-title&gt;</span></div>
<div class=»collapsible-content»>
<div class=»line»><span class=»text»>&lt;![CDATA[ ]]&gt;</span></div>
</div>
<div class=»line»><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;/journal-title&gt;</span></div>
</div>
</div>
<div id=»collapsible4″ class=»collapsible»>
<div class=»expanded»>
<div class=»line»><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;abbrev-journal-title&gt;</span></div>
<div class=»collapsible-content»>
<div class=»line»><span class=»text»>&lt;![CDATA[  ]]&gt;</span></div>
</div>
<div class=»line»><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;/abbrev-journal-title&gt;</span></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class=»line»><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;issn&gt;</span><span class=»text»>0718-4808</span><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;/issn&gt;</span></div>
<div id=»collapsible5″ class=»collapsible»>
<div class=»expanded»>
<div class=»line»><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;publisher&gt;</span></div>
<div class=»collapsible-content»>
<div id=»collapsible6″ class=»collapsible»>
<div class=»expanded»>
<div class=»line»><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;publisher-name&gt;</span></div>
<div class=»collapsible-content»>
<div class=»line»><span class=»text»>&lt;![CDATA[ Sociedad Chilena de Psicología Clínica ]]&gt;</span></div>
</div>
<div class=»line»><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;/publisher-name&gt;</span></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class=»line»><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;/publisher&gt;</span></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class=»line»><span class=»html-tag»>&lt;/journal-meta&gt;</span></div>
<div></div>

<strong>INTRODUCTION</strong>

The World Health Organization (WHO, 2009) qualifies radon as a carcinogenic agent of grade 1 (tested) and warns that the main risk derived from its inhalation is the appearance of lung cancer, being the responsible between the 3 and 14% of deaths due to lung cancer, since the radiation emitted by short-lived descendants is capable of altering the DNA of lung tissues. The dose of radiation due to radon is negligible compared to that provided by the short-lived descendants that adhere to the aerosols. The latest studies consider exposure to radon and its descendants as the second cause of development of this type of cancer after tobacco use. Therefore, the scientific and social interest in exposure to high concentrations of radon gas has increased exponentially in recent years (ICRP 126, 2014; Barbosa-Lorenzo <em>et al</em>., 2017; Ruano-Ravina <em>et al</em>., 2017). Evidence of this is the prominence acquired by radon control and measurement in Directive 2013/59 / EURATOM on Health Protection against Ionizing Radiation (EURATOM, 2014). It is important to highlight in this section what is included in articles 54, 74 and 103 of the aforementioned Directive, which must be transposed into the Spanish legal system in the month of February 2018.

Article 74 states that member states will encourage the adoption of measures to identify those homes where the annual average of radon concentrations exceeds the reference level. They should also encourage the adoption of corrective measures to reduce such concentrations of radon in homes by technical resources or other types. Article 103 refers to the action plan for radon at the national level to address the long-term risks due to radon exposures in homes, public access buildings and workplaces for any radon entry route, either soil, building materials or water.

In Spain, the Nuclear Safety Council has carried out numerous studies on radon in homes (Martín, 2004). In order to facilitate the development of the national plan of action against radon, the CSN has carried out, in collaboration with several Spanish universities, the mapping of radon potential in Spain (CSN, 2017) that categorizes the areas of the national territory according to their radon levels and, in particular, identify those in which a significant percentage of residential buildings have concentrations above 300 Bqm<sup>-3</sup>. However, in no case, the information provided by the maps should be considered as a substitute for direct measurements, which are the most reliable indicator of the risk to which each individual is exposed in his or her home or place of work. A clear example of this is found in this work.

Radon levels inside a house will be affected by numerous factors, including the geological nature of the soil on which it is built, the state of the rock and its degree of fracturing, permeability of the land, type of housing (buildings or single-family houses, plants above or below grade), construction materials used, level of ventilation and air exchange (conditioned by reaching high levels of energy efficiency that can cause radon levels to rise in houses that are too hermetic) and meteorological factors. (Righi &amp; Bruzzi, 2006; Sainz <em>et al</em>., 2009; Vásquez <em>et al</em>., 2011).

The content of <sup>226</sup>Ra is higher in siliceous soils, which increases the probability of high levels of radon in houses built on this type of soil. Table I shows the avera- ge contents of <sup>226</sup>Ra (Bqm<sup>-3</sup>) and the gamma dose rate (mRh<sup>-1</sup>) for the various types of soils (CSN, 2017).

 

Comunicate con nosotros